Britain, Prussia, Russia and Austria renewed their commitment to prevent any restoration of Bonapartist power and agreed to meet regularly for conferences to discuss their common interests. This period includes the time of the Holy Alliance, a military agreement. The Concert of Europe was the political framework that emanated from the Alliance of Four in November 1815. It is interesting to note that the Congress system was the combination of different antidotes proposed by the great powers. The British cabinet and its diplomats, led by Viscount Castlereagh, still believed in its earlier formula, “the balance of power.” Traditionally, the British strategy was anti-hegemonic and forward-looking. In Vienna, as in Utrecht a century earlier, Britain felt it was essential to hold France against a possible military resurgence. Indeed, in 1815, Great Britain supported a scenario similar to that of the buffer states around France in 1815, as it had done in 1713, consisting of the Dutch kingdom, Switzerland and Savoy from north to south. The British went a step further this time: they wanted a new European order, benevolent towards their own interests, which revolved mainly around maritime trade. If this could be done by Parley and not by military competition, so much the better – and within those borders, Britain would be prepared to maintain frequent diplomatic relations with other European powers. In fact, in the years that followed, his envoys were actively involved in the congressional system. Before the opening of the Paris Peace Conference in 1918, the British Foreign Office commissioned a history of the Vienna Congress to serve as an example to its own delegates of how to achieve such a successful peace.  In addition, the most important decisions of the Congress were taken by the four great powers, and not all European countries were able to extend their rights to Congress. The Italian peninsula has become a mere “geographical expression”, divided into seven parts: Lombardy-Venetia, Modena, Naples-Sicile, Parma, Piedmont-Sardinia, Tuscany and the papal states under the control of different powers.
 Poland remained divided between Russia, Prussia and Austria, most of which was the newly created Kingdom of Poland under Russian control.